Seymour Nurse's "Jazzifunk" Club
Jazz History/Music Chart
Photo by Orla Magee
THE ELECTRIC BALLROOM "JAZZ ROOM" (1982-86)
This is a compilation/music chart (at 'the bottom end' of the page) that I put together about 10 years ago (1995) of "some" of my favourite tunes (there are a few more which I shall add to the list when I remember them) that were featured in the original Friday night Jazz Room at the Electric Ballroom's
"Jazzifunk" Club (1982-86). People called me, "The Eyes of the Ballroom" because I always sat in exactly the same spot every Friday. I hardly missed a session from the time I was going, and saw most of what went on in The Jazz Room.
[Note: References here to "UK Jazz dancing" are referring specifically to the London "Fusion" style and movement, unless stated.]
Traditional sounding Be-Bop/Swing was not a major feature of the original London Jazz Scene / Movement (1979-82), for the main style of music that was played during this early period of Jazz club dancing (after the "Jazz Funk" period) in the South was Jazz-Fusion, Afro-Brazilian/Cuban tracks, and "Latin" influenced Jazz.
Tunes that had traces of Be-bop/Swing in them would still have to be "Afro-based", or have a different edge to it, as the straight ahead jazz did not really appeal to the London dancers, relative to their style and what moved them. The 'older' Afro-Jazz cuts were not so common either, as only a small amount were played during the earlier stage of London's Jazz club scene (1979-82).
The main period of music featured in these Jazz Rooms was from the 1970s and early 80s. We referred to certain tunes as "hard" (tough, challenging to dance to).
Do not be mistaken though, as "hard" did not mean 400 mph music. If a tune is incredibly fast, that does not necessarily make it a good one to dance to.
There were certain characteristics that dancers looked for in a track back then. It had to have pace and a strong rhythm, but more importantly, musicality, melody and depth was essential for it to be embraced on the dance floor.
"Samba De Rhoda/Dave"- The New Dave Pike Set and Groupo Baiafro, "Salvador"- Paul Horn, "My Soul"- George Duke, "Evidence"- Jerry Gonzalez, "Moon Dreams"- Flora Purim, "Apex (Straight To The Point)- Lonnie Smith, "Sly"- Herbie Hancock, "Get Off The Ground"- Baaska and Scavelli, and Janet Lawson's "So High", are some perfect examples of tunes that had all the elements.
Dave Pike's, "Samba De Rhoda/Dave" is such a good test for a dancer. It is actually harder to dance to these kind of rhythms at this pace, than the faster straight ahead tunes, as more rhythmic interpretation, technique, control and style is required. You could not "fake it" to these tracks, for they would expose a dancer.
The "Samba De Rhoda/Dave" had a huge impact at the Electric Ballroom. The kids nicknamed it "The Train", because of its rhythm, and the monstrous bassline by Eberhard Weber. There were times when the "Samba De Rhoda/Dave" came on, and some Jazz dancers were not in the room.
Somebody would find them shouting, "The train is on, he's playing the train!" The dancers would then rush to the Jazz room. This was my favourite samba and it had such an effect on me, that I once recorded it repeatedly on a 90 minute tape, to save me from rewinding it all the time. The track was 5:14 minutes long.
You always knew that you were in a 'real' Jazz Room when Terumasa Hino's, "Merry Go Round" was played, for this tune was such an anthem. When Anthony Jackson's rough bassline came in after the organ intro rounded up the dancers, you were well aware that it was time to get serious on the dance floor.
Jayme Marques, "Veracruz" was another very special track for me as a child. What he did to the Milton Nascimento classic was simply outstanding. I will never forget the first time I heard it at The Electric Ballroom, as I had quite a bizarre experience listening to it during the climax of the dynamic scat solo from the Spanish singer Pedro Ruy Blas, as the background vocalists accompanied him.
These were the kinds of tracks that inspired the kids on the dance floor. As for Baaska and Scavelli's, "Get Off The Ground (The Bottom End)"... well, you know the rest! I first heard about many of the top tunes in my playground at school. The older boys that were already going to the clubs would tell us about them.
Some of us (our West London Jazz-Fusion dance movement) were 14 years old when we were first going to the "Jazz Room" at the Electric Ballroom, dancing to these tunes in 1982. "JAZZ (DANCE) WAS A CHILDS DANCE!", FOR IT WAS A KIDS MOVEMENT.
The pioneers and innovators that first created the Fusion style/steps/moves ("The Godfathers of Fusion") : Michael (Brown) Milliner from the group "The Pasadenas", Kevin "Penguin" Haynes, Richard Baker, Danny Carter, John Reilly, Philip Octave, Mohammed, Clive Clarke, Jerry Barry, Steve "Afro" Edwards, and other dancers, were 15 to 18 years old at the time. This was before the "Jazzifunk" Club at the Electric Ballroom started, as these dancers had already pioneered and locked down the 'Fusion Style' in 1980/81 at "The Green Man" and "Jaffas" (The Horseshoe).
The Jazz Dance legends Richard Baker and Danny Carter fronted London's 'first' Jazz/Funk Dance group, "The Untouchable Force" (T.U.F) with John Reilly, Simon Mbelu, Colin Reid, Kenny Johnson and Gary Goodyear from 1979 - 1985.
Their first 'official' performance was at "The Jazzifunk Club" (The Horseshoe)" in 1981, and they danced to the Fusion tracks, "In Celebration Of The Human Spirit"- Fuse One and Toki And Samba Friends "Aquarela Do Brazil". Their outfits featured rolled up commando hats, trainers, and beige army khakis.
T.U.F were also very much in their element dancing to Funk. They performed on the opening night of the legendary "Jazzifunk" sessions at "The Electric Ballroom", on Friday 16th April 1982, dancing to 'The Sea Lion' by Grover Washington Jr.
Soul, Funk, and Boogie was played downstairs by George Power and Paul "Trouble" Anderson, and upstairs featured the clubs very first Jazz djs, Colin Parnell and Boo, even though they were the warm up djs for Chris White and Peter Christian on the opening night of The Horseshoe on Friday June 5th, 1981. The "Jazzifunk Club" was originally at The Horseshoe on a Friday night in 1981, but it then moved to "The Electric Ballroom" in 1982, due to its huge success.
For more information regarding the origins of the Fusion Movement from a DJ perspective from two of its true pioneers: These very special interviews with the legendary Djs Colin Parnell and Boo are on site. (Click the blue links)
Dj Paul Murphy also hosted the legendary "Jaffas (Jazz. And. Funk. Funk. And. Soul)" at The Horseshoe on the Friday night. George Power later started his "Jazzifunk Club" at "The Horseshoe" on the Saturday night. Incidentally, George Power was the first London dj that played Jazz-Fusion to the 'specialist' dancers at "Crackers", around 1978/79.
The Movement developed through this club, and Power was spinning tracks like, "Let Love Be Your Magic Carpet"- Michael White, "The Road Is Hard (But We're Going To Get There) by Airto, in '79, and "Lamento Negro" by Dom Um Romao, which are not what one would regard as 'Jazz-Funk' tracks. DJs were playing jazz before this period, but the pioneers of the "Fusion" dance in London were being exposed to straight Fusion in the 70s, not just 'Jazz Funk'.
Many of the dancers were as educated about the music as the djs, but for them the magic was about being on the dance floor. They knew exactly what was required, and the djs had to produce the goods. Dancers used to bring their own tunes into the earlier jazz sessions such as "The Horseshoe" to be played.
Djs were respected for playing the music, but the "Superstar" mentality did not exist among us back then. If a particular dj was playing, you knew that you were going to hear some great tunes, but we specifically went out to hear and dance to "the music", for this was our perspective in London. The artists who actually made the tracks were acknowledged more than anything else.
It was the dancers who were the club 'celebrities' running these joints, and we aspired to be like them as 'children'. So many original moves, and styles were created at these sessions. When the Jazz-Fusion moves were developing in 1979, none of us had video recorders as the Betamax video recorder was first introduced to the UK in 1980.
Neither were we exposed to much Afro-American/Caribbean dancing on TV. We were lucky enough to catch groups like "The Jackson Five" on "Top Of The Pops", when we were much younger, and we were really spoilt if we saw an old clip of "Soul Train" on TV.
These original Fusion moves were created in the clubs themselves. There was not the luxury of recording dancing on video, studying it, then imitating what you saw. In one sense, I believe that this was a blessing, as it put kids in a position where they had to be more creative, and original.
There were other talented dancers and personalities at The Horseshoe, Devils, and Electric Ballroom, that made the Movement so special. Despite what people may assume, girls danced Jazz-Fusion too. They were going to the early Horseshoe gigs in 1981, and The Electric Ballroom sessions. Some of them were renowned for battling against the boys, and did give them a good 'burning' on the dance floor too.
Back then, you were cheekily considered to be "past it" by some youngsters, if you were in your mid 20's. It was the 2nd Generation of kids that took the dance to another level when it reached The Electric Ballroom. Jazz Fusion had developed into a more conventional style, which many dancers had adopted.
Within this, there were some very special individuals who I named, "The Fusion Initiators" (Milton McAlpine, Gary Nurse, Robert Layman and Michael Knott). Their interpretation of Jazz-Fusion made them the exponents of what I would later refer to as "The Lost Dance", which consisted of certain styles and moves (mainly the battle ones) that you never saw again, even though some of their 'cuts' are known. These four 'initiators' were my personal favourites, as they gave a fresh and more dynamic element to the dance-form.
During "The Golden Age" (1980-84), the dancers who made up this original Movement (with the exception of a few that were regularly travelling down from the outskirts of the City), were kids that were all brought up in London Town.
Through this, the Fusion style was revolutionary and "pure" in its day, as it was still so close to its original source.
It held its own without the need to incorporate obvious elements of other dance forms, and the music complimented this, being an integral part of its evolution. As stated earlier, "JAZZ (DANCE) WAS A CHILDS DANCE!" This is what we lived for as kids. I, along with my twin brother (Gary "The Genius" Nurse) and friends, were already passionately dancing and battling to Jazz at 12 years old.
It was a 15 year old boy (Milton "The Ballroom King" McAlpine), who completely revolutionised the Fusion dance. He destroyed so many "victims" across the country during his unchallenged reign (at 1), for nobody could touch him in his day. He was already in the process of changing the game of jazz at the age of 14, and was actually going to "The Horseshoe" at 13 years old.
Milton was just a 'child' when he appeared in the Jazz-dance cult classic video, "Venceremos (We Will Win)" by Working Week. He was given the main role, dancing against the tap dancer Will Gaines. At 17 years old, Milton (aka "Milly The Kid") was asked to come out of 'retirement' and rejoin the group IDJ to perform on stage with the Legendary Jazz drummer Art Blakey, for the Channel Four documentary, "Father Time" in 1986.
Gary Nurse (IDJ) was 18 years old himself, when he danced with Art Blakey too, at the Shaw Theatre on that memorable occasion. During this period, Nurse and McAlpine were both considered 'mature' Jazz dancers at 17 and 18, even though they were the youngest members of the group. The same year (1986) Gary Nurse performed with the IDJ Dancers in Chick Corea's "Electric Band" video, which was filmed in Paris.
The "Fusion" dance was born in London, and evolved through its soul/disco-boogie/funk/jazz-funk scenes that were around in the mid-late 1970s. This had absolutely nothing to do with the American "Nicholas/Berry Brothers" style of jazz, even though some dancers were inspired by them. We called it "Jazz", but there was nothing old, or "old school" about the dancing in "its" day. It was a product of its time and social/cultural environment, something we could call our own.
I believe that all forms of Jazz music and dance deserve to be embraced and celebrated, as these are our roots. Within the context of what is being written, it is imperative that certain points are clarified, to avoid any misrepresentations of what our Movement was about.
"Fusion" was not an imitation, or interpretation of the traditional "swing" that Americans had been doing many decades earlier, and this is what makes its history so significant. The music played for the dance itself was not the kind one would normally have associated with night clubs in England, or anywhere else during that time period.
We in the UK (London) never called our Jazz dancing "Be Bop" either, as that was a name later used, which also became a popular term amongst the Japanese, where the "Fusion" was later cross-bred with more traditional looking "swing" influenced Jazz. Incidentally, combining the fusion with other styles of jazz, or simply just dancing jazz in a different way was established in other regions of the country before the phrase "Be Bop" was coined.
This term unintentionally creates a distortion of the original London "Fusion" dance history, as it is put in the same 'basket', so to speak. This is quite ironic, considering the fact that "Be Bop" was not even our musical preference as "Fusion" dancers.
Although it has become very common, the term "Jazz Dance" was 'not' used amongst the dancers in the early days as a representation of the Movement. The group "Working Week" made a reference to it on their "Venceremos (We Will Win)" record sleeve (Jazz Dance Special 12" version) in 1984 (which was dedicated to the Jazz Dancers of the Electric Ballroom), but it was not originally referred to as the "Jazz Dance scene".
The definition of the word "Fusion" was not a literal interpretation of its meaning, relative to the dance itself. It was not an amalgamation or "Fusion" of different dance styles combined into one. There were some influences of funk and soul/boogie for example, because it came through these scenes, but the dance held its own and was recognised as another form of jazz in its own right.
Originally, we (in London) never called our dance "Fusion". This was a term people from various parts of the country used to describe the South Easterners interpretation of jazz. They called it this because we danced to Fusion music. It was also documented as "Fusion" at the time, but those who were actually creating the dance, and "living it," simply called it "Jazz".
It officially became a Jazz 'Fusion'Movement for dancers in 1980/81. The first 'pure' Jazz Rooms were "The Green Man", "Jaffas" (The Horseshoe), "Devils" - Paul Murphy, "The Jazzifunk Club" (The Horseshoe)- Colin Parnell And Boo, in London. At this point, a distinctive dance style had developed to the Fusion/Latin Jazz that was being played in these original sessions.
There was also another "Jazzifunk Club" session at The Electric Ballroom on a Saturday night in 1981 featuring George Power, Paul Anderson, and Chris White downstairs, and Colin Parnell and Boo taking care of the Jazz Room upstairs. It was advertised as, 'Jazz On Top! Soul, Funk 'n' Boogie Down Below'. One can refer to this as 'the' original "Jazzifunk" Ballroom session.
The Londoners were not dancing any other style of Jazz (Fusion) during this period, so there was no need to call it anything. A few London dancers (around the period of 1983-84) also referred to the dance as "Latin", but as stated earlier, we never really called it anything at first. Different styles of Jazz (swing/contemporary/balletic) had developed throughout the country, and the "Fusion" term was later relevant for others (and ourselves) to describe the London style.
The "Fusion" started to spread to other regions of the country, through dancers (particularly from Birmingham) that were travelling down to these London sessions. We did not really have to travel that much (especially in the beginning), because it was all on our doorstep.
The Funk within the fusion style was inherited from the earlier generations of Funk/Soul/Boogie dancers that went to clubs like "Whiskey & Go Go (WAG)", and "Ronnie Scott's (upstairs)" as early as 1972.
Even though Fusion is a unique dance form within its own right, it was still influenced by these original club dancers who were the first generation, and their dance moves/styles were passed down to us which we made our own, for this dance did not just suddenly appear out of nothing in 1979/80.
The music played at thes parties was Soul, Funk, Jazz and Ska. The West Indians were very much into their music and dancing, and certain dancers had a reputation back then for cutting it on the dance floor. We inherited this culture from our parents, and other family members, and they paved the way for what would occur in the clubs in the early 1970s.
My mother Jeanette always used to say that they were doing the moves we did in Barbados even before they came to London in the early 60s. It has been stated that certain West Indian moves influenced the "Fusion" dance, which is hardly surprising as the dancers were of West Indian origin, so there is a very important history here that passed through the "Blues Party Generation" in the early-mid 1960s, and ended up in London clubs. (This history shall be documented on The Bottom End Website soon)
The "funkiness" within the fusion music was essential for the dance, for a 'real' fusion dancer had the funk, or elements of 'boogie' in their jazz dancing. Of course Latin (Afro-Cuban) Jazz was a feature in the clubs, but with the obvious exception of Fusion, the Movement's biggest other influence was the Afro-Brazilian "Samba". So much jazz that incorporated the rhythms and Spirit of the Samba was featured in the London jazz rooms.
Through this, the dance evolved and vice-versa. The "Samba" influence is evident in the chart below, as there are so many tracks with "Samba" in its title, as well as many other African-Brazilian related tunes. The phenomenally talented Brazilian couple Airto Moreira and Flora Purim, are without a doubt "The King and Queen of our Jazz Movement", for no one has contributed more to our dance floors than them.
The closest style of dancing that resembled London-Fusion was the "Samba" itself, which makes sense, even though we were not really exposed to it.
One of the most significant tracks ever played, that has been regarded by some as "The greatest Jazz Dancers Fusion track of all time!" was Herbie Hancock's "Sly". This tune (like Baaska and Scavelli's "Get Off The Ground"), was tailor made for the Fusion dance style. "Sly" has a samba thing going on within the funkiness of the jazz.
This is evident within Harvey Mason's samba interpretation on drums, during a part of Herbie Hancock's solo. Rhythmically, this made "Sly" such an exciting track to dance to. Also, it is just such an amazing track in all respects, as jazz tunes do not come much better than this. Herbie Hancock and the rest of the band should have got 'knighthoods' for their contribution to this track.
I had "Sly" in my record collection at 13 years old, and it was my heaviest dance track. I can remember being a little freaked out by the album cover when I first had it. I have said for many years that this music, or these tunes were, "The Soundtrack of our Youth" and experiences as kids.
The music was always there, whether we were dancing jazz in the school playground, or during college lunch breaks. A cassette recorder would be playing Jazz as we hung out on the streets, and we were allowed to play our tapes when driving with my father in his car.
In the clubs, these tracks were played to be "danced to and danced through", and this is what made the music so challenging and unique. This had nothing to do with age either (being younger with more energy), for it was just the way some of us approached, and respected the music. This made sense why these tunes were played in the first place, making them historically relevant in jazz-dance club history.
We used to say how certain tunes "beat you up". When a dj played "Sudan" by Idris Muhammed (which we nicknamed "The Terminator" because it kept coming back at you relentlessly, a friend and I would actually shake hands and wish each other luck just before we were about to take on this epic, individually. "Salvadore De Samba" by McCoy Tyner was another monster of a track to try and take out.
It was a challenge within itself just trying to deal with McCoy Tyner's intense solo, but after that you were confronted with Billy Cobham and Ron Carter's militant collaboration, that showed no mercy. There were times when cramp would start setting in the legs, and you knew that there was 2-3 minutes left, but you refused to let the tune beat you.
You had to combine all the elements (footwork, floor moves, musical interpretation, personality/character, stamina and dynamics), to "take out" an 11 minute roller coaster ride like Barry Miles "Magic Theater" or Peter Magadini's "Samba De Rollins". One dancer told me that he used to be scared of Joachim Kuhn's "First Frisco".
Some kids would only dance to the more challenging tracks (to take them out) when they felt they were ready. There was one dancer that tried to take on the "Magic Theater" at the Electric Ballroom over a period of several weeks, until he succeeded one friday night without "faking" his way through it. We used to describe dancing to "Ecue" by Walfredo De Los Reyes/Louis Bellson as "battling an army of Terminators".
We relished the challenge rather than relying on each other or a group of dancers to "tag dance" our way through the track. Of course dancers jammed together in "circles" every now and again, but this did not dominate the session. It was not really about 20 second solos into "the money shot", for that did not show your ability as a dancer.
You were tested to tunes like "Forces Of Nature" by Azar Lawrence, especially in a battle, if you were confronted with a dancer that had all the elements, and could go the distance. A dancer gained respect if they could dance through a challenging track.
There was a special connection between the music and the dancers through this approach. Some would only take on certain tracks when they felt they were ready. This is what made the music so exciting and relevant in the Jazz Rooms, as the tunes were not played just to be in the background of an exhibition on the dance floor.
The dancing dictated what was being played in these sessions. In 1978-79, the Jazz (Dance) Scene was not fully developed, as it was still evolving through the Disco-Boogie/Soul/Jazz-Funk scenes. Djs were playing tunes like >"Jungle Kitten" by Manfredo Fest, "Te Caliente"- Patsy Gallant, Cedar Walton's "Latin America", "Brazilia"- John Klemmer, and Ingrams "Mi Sabrina Tequana".
As the dancing progressed, these kind of tunes were looked upon as too "soft". Only a few Jazz tracks were being played throughout the course of an evening. Some dancers looked forward to the Jazz more than anything else, and after a period of time the other music began to sound weak, and less exciting next to it.
The demand grew for purer, heavier sessions, but most of the DJs that were playing Jazz at the time rejected this concept as they found it "anti-social". The dancers on the other hand, wanted a pure Jazz session where they could express themselves freely, without having to compromise for the masses.
Through this, Jazz rooms at The Green Man, The Horseshoe ("Jaffas: Jazz. And. Funk. Funk. And. Soul.) " and "The Jazzifunk Club") were born. Even though there were Djs that played Jazz before him, Paul Murphy revolutionised the concept of club/dancefloor Jazz. Murphy was a record dealer before and during his Djing period, supplying djs with the best tunes, so it was no surprise what he was doing on the decks.
He delved in its roots, and started playing deeper, more authentic music. When Murphy took over the Jazz room from Colin Parnell and Boo at The Electric Ballroom, he took the music to a level where no Jazz Dj had gone before.
After this, Djs "hard" Jazz-Dance sets, were basically imitations or interpretations of what Paul Murphy was playing 26 years ago. The significance of what Murphy was doing can be appreciated by the fact that he was playing the heaviest, and most obscure tracks on the chart below in 1981/82, within pure Jazz sets.
As I mentioned earlier, dancers were bringing their records to "The Horseshoe" for Djs to play Kevin "Penguin" Haynes told me about a guy named Les, who was putting Paul Murphy onto tunes. Les would come into "The Horseshoe" with records, and say, "Do you know this album?" A lot of amazing music was discovered through him, and Les was a major influence regarding what was being played to the dancers. As Paul Murphy himself said, referring to "Jaffas" at The Horseshoe, "If they asked me for something, I made sure I got it, but I liked to surprise them with my own tastes too".
Some 'lighter' tunes were featured at the Ballroom too, such as "See You Later"- Joanne Grauer featuring Lorraine Feather, "Dindi"- Janet Lawson, "I Believe In Love"- Pat Longo, "Rachaels Samba" by David Friedman, and "You're Everything"- Chick Corea. These were still quality tracks, which gave the session a kind of "romantic innocence", which the kids embraced. It still has to be stated that the Ballroom session was heavy, and very deep musically and spiritually.
There has been this idea over the years that all the music at the Electric Ballroom was 500 mph, which must have been derived from those who never attended the session on a regular basis. Even at "The Horseshoe" and "Devils", you were dancing to tracks like, Flora Purim's "From The Lonely Afternoon", War's "Flying Machine", and Judy Robert's "Never Was Love", next to Jaco Pastorius's "Used To Be A (Cha-Cha)" and "Shiftless Shuffle" by Herbie Hancock.
A lot of the 'mellower' tracks featured in the Jazz Room had so much depth and were more obscure ("Lamento Negro" - Dom Um Romao, "The Gods Of The Yoruba" - Horace Silver, "Merry Go Round" - Terumasa Hino, "Fufu"- Donald Byrd for example), in comparison to the 'dancer friendly' equivalent tunes that were being played in other jazz clubs.
The heavier music was (is) 'danceable', for people have been dancing to the fast pace and rhythms within Afro/Jazz/Latin/Fusion music for decades, or even centuries in Africa, Brazil, and Cuba before we adopted it in our club environment in a different way. 'Ordinary' dancers were simply intimidated by the standard they encountered within these particular clubs.
"The Horseshoe" and "Electric Ballroom Jazz Rooms were seperate to the 'main rooms' that played alternative music, so it was never a problem for those who found these Jazz Rooms too heavy. These individual Jazz Rooms did not affect the general scene. In other words, Djs or the scene did not 'move on' due to a single Jazz Room (Electric Ballroom) being too heavy for your regular clubber, when there were many other sessions that catered for them.
The "Jazzifunk" session at the Electric Ballroom, was the "last" club that represented the original Movement. It came through the line of sessions like, Crackers, Global Village, The Green Man, Spats, 100 Club, The Horseshoe, and Devils. Its history was later mistaken, or misinterpreted for the more commercial sessions that were around during the same time, or shortly afterwards.
This occurred because many people were totally unaware of the Electric Ballroom's history, and the London Jazz clubs that came before it. There were 'two' scenes, which were both catergorised as "Jazz (Dance)" that were around at the same period. One was commercial in a mainstream sense, playing various kinds of Jazz that would appeal more to the masses, and the other was underground.
Other 'commercial' sessions developed later. There were those who adopted the traditional Jazz concept, creating (or re-creating) a "Rebirth Of Cool", and there was also a section that was an extention of the Mod scene, adopting its look from the 1960s, spinning Blue Note cuts etc.
This period was referred to by some as, "The Blue-Note Revival", but these particular sessions were not the roots of the "original" Jazz (dance) scene, as they started much later in 1986-7. Jazz dance/music related club scenes started developing in other countries too, such as The Netherlands, Japan, Germany, France etc.
There are some dancers in Europe who have made claims of having started this dance movement without the awareness of its "Fusion origins", and the fact that it was already developing from 1978 (through the evolution of the first generation dancers from 1972), and became established in London clubs in 1979/80.
We were referred to as "Jazz Fusion Dancers" simply because we danced to "Jazz Fusion music," which is a mixture of Jazz and Funk, as well as other elements of music. "Jazz Fusion" is also referred to musically as "Jazz Rock", so whether it is called "Jazz Fusion" or "Jazz Rock" dancing, the concept of mixing Jazz Dancing with Funk is the same, and this unique and original interpretation of Jazz was created in London during the 1970s.
This dance form was not just a case of mixing Jazz with Funk, as there were other elements to it that made the Fusion so special. As mentioned earlier, the immortal Jazz drummer Art Blakey (October 11th, 1919 - October 16th, 1990) himself said, "I have never seen Jazz danced in that way before", and thought that IDJ's floor/drop moves were some form of B-Boying (Break dancing) when they performed with him in London (1986), and this is coming from a man who had been around Jazz for a very long time.
People outside of the UK were exposed to English jazz dance groups performing on stage through tv and videos. This is obvious in the way the routines and individual dance styles are copied by them and incorporated into their own performances. Some of the IDJ dance routines are literally duplicated step by step from some of these dance groups.
It was then assumed that the UK Jazz Dance scene originated from these stage performances in the mid-late 1980s, which is inaccurate, and this is why some dancers from outside the UK are absurdly trying to claim it as their own. In addition to this information, it is interesting to note that the IDJ Jazz-Fusion dancers were brought over from London to Paris in 1986 to be featured in the legendary Chick Corea's "Jazz-Rock" video, "Elektric City".
Chick Corea is one of the main pioneers of "Jazz Fusion" or "Jazz Rock" music, through his work with "Return To Forever" in the early 1970s. They wanted performers for Chick Corea's video project that were familiar with dancing to his "Jazz-Fusion/Rock" sound, and this is why IDJ were given the job, as there were no other dance groups that were so established in this field, and members of IDJ had been dancing to Chick's music since the late 1970s ("Central Park", "Fickle Funk", "The Slide", "Captain Marvel" etc..)
If a "Jazz Rock" dance scene was already fully established in France, why did the French feel the need to bring London dancers over to Paris in 1986 for the filming of this legendary musician's "Jazz-Rock" music, where IDJ were asked to perform to 3 or 4 of Chick's songs for the official release of his "Elektric Band" video?
Click here to watch Chick Corea with the IDJ Fusion dancers in Paris 1986>.
The Jazz dancing exhibited by IDJ in this video is more reminiscent of "Jazz Funk," which was the primary stage of the "Fusion" dance in London during the 70s. "Jazz Funk" is in many respects what people are now calling "Jazz Rock", and the "Fusion" is the more evolved and refined version of this.
A Jazz dance exhibition took place in Paris on November 15th 2009 between the French Jazz Rock dancers, "Pass Pass", and UK's Jazz Fusion dancers, "The Fusion All-Stars."
Click here to watch a battle sample of "Jazz Rock" (France) versus "Jazz Fusion" (UK) in Paris, November 2009
Click here to watch the "Fusion All-Stars (UK)" presentation routine in Paris, November 2009
It is important for certain historical facts regarding Jazz dancing in the UK to be voiced... In Europe, the authentic history, or origin of the Fusion dance form has been distorted where some say that it directly came from The Nicholas Brothers and other old American jazz dancers, which of course is inaccurate, even though as I stated before, some dancers were inspired by them.
My twin brother Gary said that was inspired by The Nicholas Brothers, but did not 'imitate' them. Originally, it was only in England that you could find venues playing this particular kind of jazz music to the club dancers before this concept later spread to these other countries at a later period, with many people being unaware of its true club origins.
So many tunes that became "Jazz (Dance) Club Classics" throughout Europe and the rest of the world, had already been established in English clubs during the period of 1978-83. Also in Europe, IDJ dance routines, and choreographed jazz pieces by Gary Nurse were 'duplicated', without them being given the credit for their works.
The idea of mixing Jazz with other kinds of black music, and incorporating live bands in London clubs is very much associated with the late 1980s. "Crackers" had already established this concept of spinning jazz with soul, funk, boogie etc.. in 1978-79 to specialist dancers. "The Horseshoe" jazz session promoted gigs that featured live bands such as, The Heath Brothers, Alphonse Mouzon, Tania Maria, Jay Hoggard, Paz and others.
These live club/jazz-dance sessions (which were promoted by Paul Murphy), were occurring in London as early as 1981. The Horseshoe and Electric Ballroom also had alternative rooms that played other styles of music too (Funk, Soul, Boogie, Electro-Funk, Hip-Hop, Go-Go etc), as this particular blend of music was being played at "The Jazzifunk Club" (Electric Ballroom) in 1984.
The Jazz-Fusion Dance Movement was quite extreme in comparison to the mainstream scene, as it was very cutting edge, and so underground that many people were not even aware that it existed. As one dancer said, "It was like a secret society". This was a "black underground Movement", and there were only a few clubs that represented it.
The two scenes were quite different relative to their following, the kind of Jazz sets that were played, the way they danced, and how they dressed. Crews of Jazz dancers existed in all parts of London, and they would congregate at clubs like The Horseshoe, and Electric Ballroom. The main "Jazz Posse" of the Electric Ballroom consisted of about 40-50 hardcore dancers, that would also travel to other Jazz rooms throughout the country.
The look of a Jazz-Fusion dancer was very unique, which had nothing to with 'traditional suits and spats', as originality, self-expression, and individuality was the "Spirit of the Times". Small rolled hats, sleeveless denim jackets with jeans that were seamed down the middle, and frayed at the ends were worn with Kung-Fu slippers.
Funky, 'punk-like' t-shirts, Cheetah/Leopard skin shoes were worn with jeans that were slit at the sides of the bottom, so that they could hang over them. Some kids were renowned for dancing to jazz in long macs with trilbies.
Tucker "Robin Hood" boots (burgundy were my favourite colour), were worn with Stretch jeans ("Pepe" for example), that were tucked into the boots. Sweaters, or cardigans were tied around the waist so that they hung over a dancers legs.
Low cut patent leather "bows" (the ultimate Jazz-Fusion dancers shoes), as well as the regular version were worn with white socks. "Crown/Stag" suede slippers were also common amongst the Jazz dancers. Small 'sweat towels' would be hanging out the back pocket of our jeans. You had black kids dyeing their hair green, blue, red, and various other colours, as well as having Mohican haircuts.
Even 'Ponchos' and 'Mexican hats' were worn in the Jazz room, as well as other bold and imaginative outfits. You could tell how much character and charisma a dancer had by the way they dressed. This was how a London Jazz dancer looked as early as 1981/82.
At a later stage, expensive tracksuit tops were worn with the low cut patent leather shoes, and seamed/frayed jeans, which was also a typical look for a Jazz Dancer. The fashion itself was an expression, and representation of the Movement, for the clothes were an important factor of what a Jazz man was all about. I even incorporated it into my school uniform, much to the dislike of my parents.
Many Jazz/club enthusiasts, and some well-known figures on the scene, did not want much to do with the Movement at the time, because it was looked upon as "too black", "ghetto", or "West Indian"... YET IT WAS BLACK MUSIC THAT WAS BEING PLAYED, SO WHAT ELSE DID THEY EXPECT? A few whites did attend these sessions, and there were also the curious that popped in to check it out, but these particular gigs consisted of a large black following.
Some people were too scared to attend these clubs because of this. Even a few of the Djs friends that came down to these sessions from the suburbs did not return for this reason. One Dj told me how his friends would ask him to escort them to the bar, and even the toilet, because they were so scared of the black people.
Ironically, a lot of attention was paid towards its history many years later, even by those who were not interested in it at the time, or others who did not attend these original sessions. This created a somewhat distorted account of what actually occurred within the Jazz Movement. There was also a slight media interest at the time ("The Face" Magazine, 1983), but this was probably the only feature that captured the Movement in its prime, as there was more emphasis on the mainstream scene.
Another interesting revelation regarding the whole Fusion dance movement/music history is that some of the Djs who are regarded as being main contributors of Fusion being played to the dancers did not even like Fusion, and were hardly playing it at all during those early periods.
Certain Djs have been quoted by a few people as saying quite openly, "I do not like Fusion!", yet they have been connected to its history. It is true that their roots came through 'Jazz-Funk', but they later had more of a connection to swing/be-bop/organ based blue note cuts/traditional latin, than the Fusion itself.
There has been much said regarding the Jazz 'Circle' on the dance floor. Some Djs were against them, and would avoid playing music where the more 'specialised' dancers would get together and exchange moves, or 'battle' in a circle. It was said that this was unsociable, and the kind of thing that 'West Indians' did... again, IT WAS BLACK MUSIC THAT WAS BEING PLAYED, SO WHAT DID THEY EXPECT?
As I mentioned earlier, one of the biggest tracks ever played to the Jazz-Fusion dancers was "Samba De Rhoda (Samba De Roda)/Dave", by The New Dave Pike Set and Groupo Baiafro (a trio of Brazilian drummers/percussionists who specialised in traditional West African rhythms, which the slaves took to Bahia as part of their religious rites). The "Samba De Roda" is a traditional Bahian dance/song from the seventeenth century that was performed at African-Brazilian religious
The defining characteristics of the "Samba De Roda" is that individuals gather together in a circle, which is known as "The Roda", and it is customary for each dancer to take their turn in the centre of the circle, while surrounded by the other dancers singing, and clapping their hands to the music.
From a cultural perspective, the Jazz-Fusion dancers embraced the spirit of the "Samba De Roda", interpreting the music in a traditional way, as the
"Samba De Roda" was meant to be danced to in a 'circle'. It is difficult for some to understand or accept this 'spiritual tradition', if their approach to music and dance is from a surface perspective.
A lot of the music that was played in the clubs had its roots in dance ceremonies such as this, and there were many tunes played in the Jazz Room that featured the "Samba De Roda" rhythm. So regarding 'circles' and the African-Caribbean, 'West Indian thing'...
Click here to watch an example of the 'social'/not so anti-social traditional "Samba De Roda (Rhoda)" 'circle' dance
It has been said that there were "circles and battling all night", and that just a "handful" or "few" people were dancing at these Horseshoe and Electric Ballroom sessions. This has been greatly distorted, as it simply was not the case.
When the music journalist Robert Elms went to the Electric Ballroom to do a feature for "The Face" magazine, he stated that there was "a 'main' posse of 50 dancers" that would be at The Ballroom, and this was not including the others, so if you simply do the math, there was more than a "few" or "10" dancers on the floor during these sessions.
A short film was made of the Jazz Movement at the Electric Ballroom in 1984-86, by filmmaker Dick Jewell. This consisted of a camera crew coming into the Jazz Room over a period of several weeks towards the end of Paul Murphy's residency, and the beginning of Gilles Peterson's in 1984.
Strangely enough, for reasons that I do not understand, it was denied that this footage even existed, and it was stated that filming had never taken place at the Electric Ballroom. The Jazz Room was so dark that if a crew was filming in there, the dancers would have been very aware of this. I was there when the filmimg took place, yet people later said that I must have been 'mistaken'. You do not forget a camera crew in the Jazz Room at the Electric Ballroom. This film became somewhat of an "Urban Myth".
The dancers had fun in front of the camera, and there were a few 'light' battles, but in general the 'Top Guns' did not give too much away, as the other dancers got more exposure. According to Milton aka "Milly The Kid", "it was about being incognito, and not giving too much away". I do remember there being some special moments that must have been captured on camera. The official name of this film is simply called, "The Jazz Room", by Dick Jewell.
There is another side to Jazz-Dance club history which was quite deplorable, to say the least. Some of the clubs door policies back then can only be described as disgraceful. It has to be said that certain Djs/promoters themselves behaved in a certain way that was very controversial, and disrespectful.
There were other Djs and promoters who kept their integrity, and actually lost residencies because black people were attending their sessions. One famous Dj was even told that "too many niggers were coming to his gigs"; even though the music policy of these clubs was black music.
It actually got to the point where this Dj was sent threatening letters, because the locals were angry with him attracting too many blacks to their area. This is why the Jazz Movement was established at places like The Electric Ballroom, because all the dancers had no problem getting in the venue. This was depicted in the short film/video of the Jazz track, "Venceremos (We Will Win)", by Working Week.
At the beginning of the long "I Dance Jazz" (IDJ) video version, the IDJ Jazz Dancers are shown having a dispute with the doormen, because they are being refused entry into the club. This was a very common occurrence back then (not necessarily with the IDJ group members themselves), yet many of the other dancers that went to these places were smartly dressed, and not under age.
Click here to watch the short version of Working Week's "Venceremos" video, featuring the IDJ Fusion dancers in 1984
As controversial as it sounds, some people behind the scenes said that particular dancers could regularly attend the clubs that had dubious door policies, because they were regarded as the 'entertainment' for the punters on the dance floors, even though there was still a limit in regards to how many blacks were allowed in these clubs. Ironically, some of the door men were black themselves.
I remember a disturbing incident when I was djing at a club many years ago. I had just started a new Jazz session in Central London. During the course of the evening, I realised that the place was very quiet and could not understand it, as many people said that they were going to be there by a certain time. At one point somebody came up to me, and said that the doorman was turning so many blacks away, although the club was relatively empty.
I was even more shocked when I was told that they were not letting in my twin brother, even though he was on my guestlist. I went to the entrance and told the doorman to let my brother in, but he still refused I will never forget the expression on my twin's face as he said, "Seymour, how can you play at a club that does not even let your own brother in?"
Obviously I complained about the situation, and the manager asked to have a private word. He took me into a back room with one of the doormen, and another security man. I remember one of them threatening me with a sharp object if I caused anymore trouble. I played the heaviest set after I returned to to the decks at an almost deafening volume, and I remember the barman covering his ears... I never set foot in this club again.
When Dj Paul Murphy left The Electric Ballroom, a lot of the dancers went to support him at his new venue, but were not allowed in. They had no choice but to go back to The Electric Ballroom. This twist of fate worked very much in the favour of Murphy's replacement (a young and enthusiastic Gilles Peterson), who was given his first regular Jazz club session there as a resident Dj in April 1984.
A friend once said to me, "So many clubs would not let us in, but at least it was always guaranteed that you could get into The Electric Ballroom". Even as children we were very aware of what was going on. I would arrange to meet friends at certain clubs, but I knew that it was not always guaranteed that I would see them in there.
Some people who I assume did not go to these original sessions, stated that "the scene was too small", and that the underground Movement needed to be made more "commercial and accessible" to others. This is quite ludicrous, considering the fact that there were up to 4 or even 5 different clubs in London "every night" in 1982, that played Jazz. The mainstream scene was still very active in the mid-late 80s. There was room for both, and we were quite content for our scene to remain underground.
When the Movement ended at the Ballroom, the more commercial Jazz dance scene continued. Only a handful of the original Jazz-Fusion dancers continued to go to these other sessions, as most of them were never seen in the clubs again. So much talent, and many incredible moves were gone.
The last Djs to play in the Jazz room were "The Dynamic Duo", Andy Dyer and Mark Higgins. For me, they were "The Rocks of the Ballroom". They had a real understanding and affinity towards the dancers, and never lost interest in them, or what the Movement represented.
They played with the same conviction, regardless of how many dancers were in the Jazz room, where many Djs would be discouraged if they were not playing to a packed dance floor. "The Dynamic Duo" were such great Djs, and I feel that they did not get the recognition which they truly deserved.
The dancers gave them a lot of support and respect. There were quite a few occasions when Andy and Mark received a round of applauds from the kids at the end of a session (which incidentally has nothing to do with 'Dj worship'), as we appreciated the fact that they genuinely wanted to be there to give us somewhere to 'play'. It was quite fitting that Dyer and Higgins played until the Ballroom's end.
There was something very enchanting about that Jazz room, which I had never experienced before, neither have I encountered anything like it since. An extremely dark room in North London, filled with black kids as young as 14 years old, dancing and sweating heavily for hours to music where so much of its roots, rhythms, and chants were based in Candomble, Yoruban and Macumba culture/mythology, was destined to create something quite exceptional in club history.
An almost "bewitching" atmosphere would manifest in the Jazz room, when Chegada "corpo" by Nana Vasconcelos was played, as the kids did a routine to his "slave boat chant", which seemed to go on forever. I am sure that our "spiritual ancestors" paid us a visit at The Electric Ballroom on several occasions. Being exposed to that kind of music and dance at such a young age, during what can only be described as "a magical time period" was a real blessing.
It was these kinds of obscure and challenging tracks (listed below) that had a profound influence on London's unique interpretation of Jazz dancing,
particularly during the period of 1982-84, when the music and dancing was at its peak, yet the spirit of the Movement continued until the end of the Jazz Room in the "Jazzifunk Club" at The Electric Ballroom in 1987.
Click on this link for more information: West Indian Jazz Dancing Roots
Click on this link for more information: The Bottom End Blog
Get Off The Ground (The Bottom End)- Baaska and Scavelli
Samba De Rhoda/Dave- The New Dave Pike Set and Groupo Baiafro
Sly- Herbie Hancock
Vera Cruz- Jayme Marques
Bridge- Flora Purim
Merry Go Round- Terumasa Hino
Magic Theater- Barry Miles' Silverlight
Chegada "corpo"- Nana Vasconcelos ("Zumbi" Album Version)
First Frisco- Joachim Kuhn
Romance Of Death- Airto
Salvador- Paul Horn
Pepi's Samba- Cecil McBee Sextet
Braun-Blek-Blu- Dom Um Romao
Evidence- Jerry Gonzalez
Ecue- Walfredo De Los Reyes/Louis Bellson
Tombo In 7/4- Airto
Moon Dreams- Flora Purim
So High- Janet Lawson Quintet
Shenkensen- Urszula Dudziak
Soundcheck- Wlodek Gulgowski
Antonia- Alphonse Mouzon
Goli/ Loft Dance- Dave Liebman
Apex (Straight To The Point)- Lonnie Smith
Fufu- Donald Byrd
Unknown Tongue- Dewey Redman
Salvadore De Samba- McCoy Tyner
Batucada- Par Ney De Castro
Mambo De La Pinta- Art Pepper ("No Limit" Album Version)
Romance Of Death- Harris Simon Group
More Smiles Forever- Michal Urbaniak Fusion
Passagem- Dom Salvador
The Samba Express- Eric Kloss
Eruption- Tania Maria
Tribute To Afreeka- Stone Alliance
I See Chano Pozo- Jayne Cortez And The Firespitters
Cositas- Clare Fischer
Casa Forte- Flora Purim
Belisco- Paulinho Da Costa
Captain Marvel- Chick Corea
Mother Of The Future- Norman Conners
Roxanna- Urszula Dudziak
Song For A Lonely Woman- Art Blakey
See You Later- Joanne Grauer featuring Lorraine Feather
Empty Faces (Vera Cruz)- Mark Murphy
(Used To Be A) Cha-Cha- Jaco Pastorius
Pouso Em Gongonhas- Groupo Medusa
Pro Zeca- Victor Assis Brasil
Tap Step- Chick Corea
Something Everywhere- Steve Kuhn
White Heat- Barry Miles
Xibaba (She Ba-Ba)- Airto featuring Flora Purim
Ritmo Number One- Paulinho Da Costa
Bahia- Nathan Davies
Beyond A Dream- Norman Conners
Park View- Geoff Donaval
Dedicated To Bruce- Flora Purim
500 Miles High- Kim Lesley
Samba De Rollins- Peter Magadini
Anthenagin- Art Blakey
Para Chick- Tania Maria
Shazam (Captain Marvel)- David Lahm
Remember Your Day Off- Richie Cole
Empty Faces (Vera Cruz)- Flora Purim
Nothing For Nothing- Mongo Santamaria
Gumbo- Cortijo And His Time Machine
Ritual- Art Blakey
Pursuing The Trace- Paul De Oderone
Sambala- Jose Mangual Junior
Spain- Art Farmer
Daydreams- Ray Barreto
Samba Torto- Marcos Ariel
Light As A Feather- Chick Corea
Jubilation- Patrice Rushen
Vente Conmigo- Fania All-Stars
New York Is A Jungle Festival- Herbie Mann
Estamos Ahi- Paquito D'Rivera
Ponteio- Dom Um Romao
In Every Way- Reverie
Pierrot's Last Day Samba- Roman Schwaller Quartet
Chinese Medicinal Herbs- Jeff Lorber
Seven Steps To Heaven- Andy Narell
Mission Eternal- Art Blakey
Venceremos (We Will Win)- Working Week
Festival- Mat Marucci
The Bottle/Guan Guanco- Gil Scott Heron (Live Album Version)
Corre Nina- Flora Purim
Ponto De Fusao- Grupo Medusa
Sao Pablo- Jay Hoggard
Sambiando- Dave Valentin
Hot Chilli Sauce- Robin Jones
Seven Steps To Heaven- Lonnie Smith
Don't Touch- Don Rader
Projecting- Hadley Caliman
That's What She Said- Flora Purim
Memories Of Coltrane- Carlos Garnett
Mas Que Nada (Pow Wow Wow)- Dizzy Gillespie
African Bird- Opa
Five Hundred Miles High- Chick Corea
Bottom End- Working Week
Novo Ano- Azar Lawrence
Bebop- Jerry Gonzalez And The Fort Apache Band
Love Samba- McCoy Tyner
You're Everything- Chick Corea
Caravan- Jerry Gonzalez
Voodoo Wind- Jon Hassell
Forces Of Nature- Azar Lawrence
The Gods Of The Yoruba- Horace Silver
Baker's Daughter- Alphonse Mouzon
Club 7 And Other Wild Places- Stan Getz
Who Do Voo Doo- Mat Marucci
It's A Trip- The Last Poets
Roksana- Michal Urbaniak
Zanzibar- Sergio Mendes
Ole- Judy Roberts
Captain Marvel- Urbie Green
Dear Alice- Chick Corea
Samba Para San Francisco- Luis Gasca
Morena- Toki And Samba Friends
Whatever Happened To The Love- Boy Katindig
El Tigre- Matrix
Don The Don- Harris Simon Group
Tambu (Tombo In 7/4)- Cal Tjader
Lamento Negro- Dom Um Romao
Dindi- Janet Lawson
Tristeza (Goodbye Sadness)- Sergio Mendes
Yatra Ta- Tania Maria
Patato- Herbie Mann
Octane- George Benson
Salsa En Cinco (Salsa In Five)- Walfredo De Los Reyes/Louis Bellson
Passing Through- Chico Hamilton
Konkoina- Dandy's Dandy
King Charles- Charlie Palmieri
Visions- Luis Gasca
The Slide- Chick Corea
A Night In Tunisia- Urszula Dudziak
Sun Shower- Byron Morris & Unity
Festival- Raul De Souza
Billy's Ballet- Norman Bishop Williams
Sudan- Idris Muhammed
The Angels- Dom Um Romao
Life Trip- Terumasa Hino
Missing Doto (Saudades do Doto)- Azymuth
La Tumbadora- Airto
Mu'Omi (Drink Water)- Yuseef Lateef
De I Comahlee Ah- Jackie McLean & Michael Carvin
Caravan- Dom Um Romao
My Soul- George Duke
Mixing- Airto featuring Flora Purim
Brasamba- Bud Shank
Aquarela Do Brazil- Toki and Samba Friends
Felicadade/O Nosso Amor- Sadao Watanabe
Descarga Yema Ya- Clare Fischer
Djalma- Dave Pike
The Final Approach- Ivan Chandler Quintet
In Pursuit Of The 27th Man- Horace Silver
What's Going On- Louis Hayes
Fresh Start- Mat Marucci
Flying Colours- James Williams
Afortunado- Sonny Fortune
Brazilian Tapestry- George Muribus
Parisian Thoroughfare- Jerry Gonzalez And The Fort Apache Band
Cojelo Suave- Daniel Ponce
Para Buenos Bailarines (For Good Dancers)- Walfredo De Los Reyes/ Louis Bellson
Kitchen- Dom Um Romao
Cravo E Canela (Clove And Cinnamon)- Milton Nascimento
A New Dawn- The Charlie Rouse Band
No Face, No Name- Semuta
Waterfall Rainbow- David Friesen
Chinese Medicinal Herbs- Jeff Lorber Fusion
Mother Of The Future- Carlos Garnett
Samba Pa Negra- Jay Hoggard
Shiftless Shuffle- Herbie Hancock
There's Nothing Smart About Being Stupid- Sonny Fortune
Gibraltar- Freddie Hubbard
The Call Of The Wild- Lonnie Smith
Flash Flood- Billy Cobham
Razors Edge- The John Payne Band
Speedy Gonzales- Gerry Niewood
El Beto- Hugo Heredia
Trompeta En Montuno- Chocolate En Sexteto
Malaguena- Studio Trieste
Celebration Suite- Airto
North Station- Harris Simon Group
Pretty City- Stan Getz
Gingele- Michael Longo
Samba De Orfeu- Herbie Mann
The Gringo- Horace Silver
The Latin Thing- Hadley Caliman
If You Only Knew- John Stubblefield
Do It Fluid- Dirty Dozen Brass Band
The Road Is Hard (But We're Going To Make It)- Airto
Quiet Fire- Roy Haynes
Habana Sol- McCoy Tyner
Bacaloa Con Pan- Tito Puente And The Latin Percussion Jazz Ensemble
Assimilation- Horace Silver
Samba Do Brilho- Bill Hardman
Vento Bravo- Ira Sullivan
Primitivo- Sergio Mendes
You're Everything- Carmen McRae
Pistachio- Jimmy Cobb
It's Over- Nanette Natal
Chekere Son- Irakere
Night In Tunisia- Art Blakey ("Night In Tunisia" Philips version)
Move- Art Taylor
The View From Her Room- Weekend
Times Lie- Flora Purim
Don't Go 'Way Mad- Norman Williams
Flying Colours- David Schnitter
Favors (Impressions) - Lonnie Smith
Love Samba- McCoy Tyner ("Atlantis" Live Version)
En Memoria De Chano Pozo- David Amram
The Sun God Of The Masai- Horace Silver
Children Of Bahia- Randy Masters Featuring Solar Plexus
Samba De Orfeu- Bud Shank
Wake Up Song (Baiao Do Acordar/ Cafe)- Airto
Salt Song- Stanley Turrentine
Goodbye Batucada- Robin Jones
Weekend In L.A.- The Monty Alexander 7
AC/ DC (Paz Are Back version)- Paz
Something Everywhere- Steve Kuhn
Cosmic Flight- Clare Fischer
Samba Sushi- The Drum Session
Pao De Acucar- Naoya Matsuoka and Wesing
The Magicans- Airto ("Identity" Album Version)
Let Love Be Your Magic Carpet- Michael White
Bacchanal- Kenny Barron
Spirits Samba- Dave Pike
Listen Love- Jon Lucien
Moments Notice- Hubert Laws
Wilpans Walk- Chico Freeman
Cinnamon Flower (Cravo E Canela)- The Charlie Rouse Band
Nica's Dream- Kenny Burrell with the Brother Jack McDuff Quartet
Ping Pong- Art Blakey
Caravan- Dizzy Gillespe ("Afro" Album Version)
Factory- Harris Simon Group
Fickle Funk- Chick Corea
Brazilian Skies- Bill Summers
Ex Heliente- Harold Ousley
Third Movement- The Woody Herman Band
Con Fuego- Robin Jones
Spirit of the Truth- Emanuel K Rahim & the Kahliqs
Te Crees Que- Cal Tjader
Diecisiete Punto Uno- Eddie Palmieri
Pao De Acucar- Pacific Jam
Celebration- Eric Kloss
Free Spirit- Bernie Senensky
Latina- Barry Miles
All Points South- Harris Simon Group
Slick- Ramsey Lewis
Baia (Outro)- Flora Purim
Space A la Mode- Herb Geller With Mark Murphy
Wind Chant- Harris Simon Group
Frankenstein Goes To The Disco/Sweet Wine- Billy Cobham/George Duke
Take 6.4.5- Naoya Matsuoka and Wesing
Moments Notice- Paquito D' Rivera
Revelation- Sonny Fortune
Samba De Negro- Stone Alliance
Parata Gua Gua- Raices
Tombo- Airto ("Aqui Se Puede" Album Version)
Mr and Mrs- Tania Maria
Central Park- Chick Corea
Proteus- The Jeff Lorber Fusion
The Power Of A Smile- Herb Geller With Mark Murphy
Los Viajeros (The Travellers)- Barry Miles and Silverlight
Himiola- The John Payne Band
Here And Now- The Headhunters
Maryke- John Thomas And Lifeforce
April In Paris- Dandy's Dandy
On Green Dolphin Street- Paquito D' Rivera
Samba Song- Chick Corea
Prelude Of Batucada ~Here comes Carnival- Samba Calioca
Batucada Da Vida- Robin Jones
Festival- George Duke
Basta De Cuentos- Daniel Ponce
The Tiger Of San Pedro- Bill Watrous
Granada Smoothie- Stan Kenton
Samba To Remember You By- Sam Most with Joe Farrell
La Fayette- Semuta
Yours Is The Light- Paz
Sky Train- Barry Miles & Co
Kuru / Speak Like A Child- Jaco Pastorius
Seventy Fourth Avenue- Pete Magadini
Rhumba Dreams- Carlos Franzetti
D'Ju Like Me- Flip Nunez
Keeper Of The Flame- Poncho Sanchez
Santo Domingo- Cal Tjader
Love- Cal Tjader with Carmen McRae
Uncle Ben & Aunt Jemima- Carlos Garnett
Bacchanal- Sonny Fortune
Encounter (Encontro No Bar)- Airto
Relay- Barry Miles and Co
Vaya Mulatto- Stone Alliance
Roforofo Fight- Fela Kuti
Airegin- Hubert Laws
Samba All Day Long- Jorge Dalto
Shot On Goal- Jose Roberto Bertrami
Ben Sidran- The Cuban Connection
Love Is On The Way- Bruce Cameron Ensemble
Hot Fire- George Duke
The Samba- Jeff Lorber Fusion
In Celebration Of The Human Spirit- Fuse One
Simbora- Paulinho Da Costa
Music Is A Game We Play- Herbie Mann
Sambolero- Coconuts Crew
La Batucomparsa- Wilfredo Stephenson
Samba For Maria- Norman Conners
Sicily- Chick Corea
Blue Bossa- Richie Cole
Liberated Fantasies- George Duke
Promontory- John Thomas And Lifeforce
Bullet Train- Mike Maneiri
Tuesday Heartbreak- Ronnie Foster
The Buddha- Paz
Spirits Samba- Ron Eschete
Pao De Acucar (Delight/ Jubilation)- Naoya Matsuoka And Wesing
The Magicians- Airto ("The Magicians" Album Version)
Swish- Harris Simon Group
Mama Aguela- Cal Tjader
1978- Art Blakey
Fly With The Wind- McCoy Tyner
Mambo De La Pinta- Art Pepper ("Live In Tokyo '79, Besame Mucho" Album Version)
Mas Que Nada- Dick Hyman
Marc/Baiafro- The New Dave Pike Set And Grupo Baiafro
Tune Up- Dandy's Dandy
Manteca- Lalo Schifrin
Clusters- Charlie Palmieri
Airegin- Bobby Enriquez
Pantanal 2 (Swamp)- Ivan Conti
Samba For Carmen (McRae)- Paquito D'Rivera
Time And Effort- Horace Silver
Hot Fire- Fuse One
Routes- Barry Miles
Samba L.A- Chick Corea
Highway- Dom Um Romao
Aire ParaRespirar- Wilfredo Stephenson
Vistalite- Roy Haynes
Zomar Land- Michal Urbaniak
Seymour Nurse (c) Copyright 2006